Italian Gold Hallmarks

Italian gold hallmarks – White gold pendant necklace

Italian Gold Hallmarks

italian gold hallmarks

    hallmarks

  • (hallmark) authentication: a mark on an article of trade to indicate its origin and authenticity
  • A hallmark is an official mark or series of marks struck on items made of precious metals — platinum, gold, silver and in some nations, palladium. In a more general sense, the term ”” can also be used to refer to any distinguishing characteristic or trait.
  • A mark stamped on articles of gold, silver, or platinum in Britain, certifying their standard of purity
  • A distinctive feature, esp. one of excellence
  • (hallmark) a distinctive characteristic or attribute

    italian

  • a native or inhabitant of Italy
  • Of or relating to Italy, its people, or their language
  • the Romance language spoken in Italy
  • of or pertaining to or characteristic of Italy or its people or culture or language; “Italian cooking”

    gold

  • An alloy of this
  • A yellow precious metal, the chemical element of atomic number 79, valued esp. for use in jewelry and decoration, and to guarantee the value of currencies
  • coins made of gold
  • amber: a deep yellow color; “an amber light illuminated the room”; “he admired the gold of her hair”
  • A deep lustrous yellow or yellow-brown color
  • made from or covered with gold; “gold coins”; “the gold dome of the Capitol”; “the golden calf”; “gilded icons”

italian gold hallmarks – Doo Wop

Doo Wop Box
Doo Wop Box
The unwritten rules for doo-wop groups were deceptively simple: name your group after a bird (the Wrens, the Flamingos) or a car (the Cadillacs, the El Dorados), practice your two-, three-, or four-part harmonies on a neighborhood street corner or in the back of a candy store, and sing songs about how much you love your baby. It might have seemed like an obvious formula, but getting it just right was never easy. When it worked, that formula created some of the most joyful and unforgettable music of the 20th century. From the Orioles (“It’s Too Soon to Know”) to Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers (“I Want You to Be My Girl”), this four-CD collection is without a doubt the definitive introduction to the rock & roll vocal music of the 1950s and early ’60s. –Percy Keegan

Barclay-Vesey Building

Barclay-Vesey Building
Financial District, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States

The Barclay-Vesey Building of the New York Telephone Company (also known as the New York Telephone Building) was the first major work of prominent New York architect Ralph Walker. Constructed in 1923-27 and built at a time of great progress and transition in American design, it was a product of the atmosphere of architectural creativity and originality which flourished in New York in the 1920s. A pivotal structure in the history of skyscraper architecture, it is a prototypical example of what came to be regarded as the American Art Deco style. , Intended to be completely modern in. every feature and detail, from its form, generated by its parallelogram-shaped site and contemporary zoning restrictions, to its construction techniques, materials, unconventional ornament, and style, Walker’s design for "the largest telephone company building in the world"1 was an emphatic statement of the most recent architectural trends.

The building, designed to be "as modern as the telephone activity it houses . . . [was] a simple, straightforward solution" to the requirements of the building program.2 The progressive design of the building was envisioned by company president, Howard F. Thurber, and resulted in a grand statement of his company’s size, strength, and success. The overall effect of Walker’s Barclay-Vesey Building is one of strong form and bold silhouette, with its blunt setback transitions articulated by vertical buttress-like piers and massive form relieved by intricate, animated ornament. Substantially intact, the building continues to be a dramatic presence on Manhattan’s skyline.

Site History

The block bounded by Barclay and Vesey Streets at the north and south and Washington and West-Streets at the east and west was originally located, beyond the .present shoreline, west side’ of Manhattan was developed beginning early in the nineteenth century. As part of the improvement, the banks of the Hudson were filled in, extended, and raised, and piers were constructed at the western end of every street between Vesey and King Streets by the late 1830s.3 Crucial to the city’s mercantile expansion, the improvements helped New York City to achieve recognition as the country’s major port and trading center by the 1830s and 1840s. This area and the section of the city just to the north, now known as Tribeca, were transformed into a center for dairy goods, produce, and less perishable goods including tobacco, imported woods, coffee, and spices. Markets for these items were developed in the area close to the docks to facilitate the handling of the commodities.

First established in 1812 and repeatedly expanded, the Washington Market, located on the block bounded by West, Washington, Vesey, and Fulton Streets, just south of the Barclay-Vesey Building, grew to be Manhattan’s major wholesale and retail produce outlet.4 Many other buildings were constructed in the area to accommodate the food industry, including approximately thirty-five three-, four-, and five-story brick buildings on the site chosen for the telephone company’s headquarters. The activities of the merchants, so important to the site and to the surrounding area, would later be recalled in the ornamental program of the Barclay-Vesey Building. The site was chosen over more popular office locations to the east on Broadway because it was much less expensive. The West Street frontage was considered an asset because it was assumed that the structures along the docks would never rise above two or three stories and the future building’s western exposure would, therefore, always remain unobstructed.

The New York Telephone Company

The telephone business developed rapidly following the early successes of Alexander Graham

Bell’s inventions in the. L^70^. By the turn of the century the AmeVican’ Telephone & Telegraph Company had become the central institution of Bell Telephone Company operations, with smaller companies, including the New York Telephone Company, conducting its regional services.

After a sluggish period of business during World War I the New York Telephone Company faced a new period of rapid expansion. In an effort to organize and control the growth, the company decided to establish divisional headquarters throughout the state. A reassessment of the company’s organization in New York City concluded that its personnel, offices, and equipment were inefficiently scattered city-wide. Howard Ford Thurber (1869-1928), president of the New York Telephone Company from 1919 to 1924, determined that a new central headquarters building would alleviate the problems associated with the company’s lack of unity. Thurber’s "vision," as it was called in his New York Times obituary, was to create a building large enough to "satisfy the [company's] present demands and to reasonably anticipate future requirements."5 The new headquarters building would con

Gorham Building

Gorham Building
Ladies’ Mile, Broadway, Manhattan, New York City, New York

The Gorham Building, built in 1883-83 at the northwest corner of Broadway and 19th Street, was designed by noted architect Edward Hale Kendall, and is one of his few surviving buildings. The building is an unusual example remaining in New York of the Queen Anne style. This style, which was not often used for commercial buildings, makes the building with its picturesque massing and rich ornamental detail a noteworthy addition to the area. Erected for Robert and Ogden Goelet when this section of Broadway was a fashionable shopping district, the building housed the store of the Gorham Manufacturing Company, a producer of fine silver, in its lower two floors.

The Clients and the Site

Robert (1821-1899) and Ogden (1851-1897) Goelet were members of an old and wealthy New York family; the first Goelet came to New Amsterdam from Holland in the third quarter of the 17th century. 1 Robert and Ogden’s great-grandfather was a successful hardware dealer. Their grandfather, Peter P. Goelet, continuing the hardware business, also invested in New York real estate; by the time of his death in 1830 he owned a large property known as the "Goelet Farm." Their father Robert, and especially their uncle Peter, greatly increased the family land holdings in the city. According to his 1879 obituary in the New York Times, Peter Goelet "made it an invariable rule never to part with .a foot of land the title of which had been once vested in the Goelet family…On the other hand, he was at all times ready to purchase property," so that by the end of his life he "owned lots in every part of the city.

Robert and Ogden Goelet, inheriting the property in 1879, continued their uncle’s practice of rarely or never selling land, and the estate constantly increased in value.

The Goelets began to acquire land on both sides of Broadway between 19th and 20th Streets in the 1840s , by which time the built-up city had reached Union Square and was rapidly growing northward. The first Goelet to buy land in the area was Peter Goelet, the uncle of Robert and Ogden. In January 1844

he purchased two lots at Broadway and 20th Street (on the site of the present Goelet Building, McKim, Mead and White, 1886-87), and a large parcel at the northeast corner of Broadway and 19th Street, where about a year later he built his own house. By the 1880s almost all the land along Broadway between 19th and 20th Streets belonged to the Goelets; The actual site of the Gorham Building was purchased by another member of the family, Almy Goelet, in 1845-46.

Broadway above 14th Street never became as fashionable a residential district as it had been further south- Although there were some mansions, other dwellings tended to be flats for middle-class residents with shops on the ground floor. Peter Goelet’s four-story brownstone mansion at Broadway and 19th remained the grandest residence on Broadway, until its demolition in 1897. By the 1870s, Broadway between 14th and 23rd Streets was being redeveloped as part of a fashionable. shopping .district. which included Broadway and Fifth and

Sixth Avenues, and 14th and 23rd Streets. Broadway between 10th Street and Madison Square became- known as the "Ladies’ Mile. Tiffany built a cast-iron fronted building at Union Square and 15th Street; Lord & Taylor’s new store, also iron-fronted (and a designated New York City Landmark) opened at the southwest corner of Broadway and 20th Street; Arnold Constable and Co. built their store at the southwest corner of Broadway and 19th.

The panic of 1873 considerably reduced construction in New York, but building resumed in the late 1870s. In the early 1880s W. ? J. Sloane’s store opened at the southeast corner of Broadway and 19th Street, across from Arnold Constable, and Brooks Brothers was located at Broadway between 21st and 22nd Streets. It was during this period that the Gorham Building was erected.

Although the area was at its commercial height in the 1870s and 1880s, it remained fashionable for shopping until the early 20th century, when the large businesses started moving further north. The first to leave was B. Altman’s in 1906,. moving from Sixth Avenue and 18th Street to Fifth Avenue at 34th Street, its present location. The Gorham Company followed the same year, moving to a new building on Fifth Avenue at 36th Street. By the end of World War I, most of the major stores had departed from the Ladies* Mile district, leaving their buildings behind.

The Architect

To design the Gorham Building, Robert and Ogden Goelet commissioned Edward Hale Kendall (1842-1901), who in 1880 had been the architect for their new houses on Fifth Avenue. Kendall, born in Boston, attended the Boston Latin School and then lived in Paris in 1858-59, studying languages, art, and architecture. On his return to Boston, he entered the office of Bryant & Gilman, Where he worked and studied architecture. In 1865

italian gold hallmarks

italian gold hallmarks

Pensa in Italiano! Think in Italian! Carte 1-50 (Italian Edition)
Think in Italian is a little introduction to the Italian language directly in Italian. As you will notice, by using this book, there are not translations of the sentences in English…Why? Because the goal of this book is to let you Think in Italian as much as possible. Besides, if you understand everything is written thanks to pictures, what do you need translations for?
Consider Think in Italian mostly like a collection of flash cards in Italian. There are fifty. Each of them includes words, expressions and sentences commonly used in the Italian language.

How can you use these cards? Go and download the FREE audio at the provided link. The first time, listen to the audio as you read and look at the cards.In each card there’s a question. Make an intelligent guess before looking at the answer after the symbol ~. Answer as fast as you can. Doing this will activate the right part of your brain, the one in charge for automatic responses. This way the acquiring of the language will be easier. At this point check the answer. Practise as often as you can and for brief periods. Take your ebook reader with you and use Think in Italian every time you have the chance to.

Remember that the idea is to Think in Italian and to avoid your mother tongue.
Have fun with Think in Italian!

Think in Italian is a little introduction to the Italian language directly in Italian. As you will notice, by using this book, there are not translations of the sentences in English…Why? Because the goal of this book is to let you Think in Italian as much as possible. Besides, if you understand everything is written thanks to pictures, what do you need translations for?
Consider Think in Italian mostly like a collection of flash cards in Italian. There are fifty. Each of them includes words, expressions and sentences commonly used in the Italian language.

How can you use these cards? Go and download the FREE audio at the provided link. The first time, listen to the audio as you read and look at the cards.In each card there’s a question. Make an intelligent guess before looking at the answer after the symbol ~. Answer as fast as you can. Doing this will activate the right part of your brain, the one in charge for automatic responses. This way the acquiring of the language will be easier. At this point check the answer. Practise as often as you can and for brief periods. Take your ebook reader with you and use Think in Italian every time you have the chance to.

Remember that the idea is to Think in Italian and to avoid your mother tongue.
Have fun with Think in Italian!

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

%d bloggers like this: